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Inga Carry

German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP)

Inga Carry is a Research Assistant in the “Research Network Sustainable Global Supply Chains” project at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP). Her research focuses primarily on environmental crime, resource conflicts, and security policy. She previously worked as a researcher for the trilateral environmental organization EcoPeace Middle East assessing the impact of climate change on social and political stability in the Middle East. Inga Carry holds a B.A. in Political Science and an M.A. in Peace and Conflict Studies.
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publication
Sustainable Global Supply Chains Report 2022

Global supply chains affect the economy, the environment and social welfare in many ways. Worldwide, economies are experiencing global supply shortages today, affecting key industries such as automotive and consumer electronics as well as vaccine and medical supplies industries. These preoccupy policymakers, who are debating independent national production capacities and restrictions on international trade, but also large companies, which consider reshoring production and abandoning just-in-time procurement. At the same time, the greening of the global economy requires a restructuring of global production to massively decrease its environmental footprint. This creates new supply chain challenges – how to move towards circular economies and how to reorient energy-intensive industries towards renewables and green hydrogen, for example. And let‘s not forget: Consumers are increasingly demanding higher social and environmental standards. Transparency requirements and binding due diligence obligations will in particular affect countries that export raw materials and labour-intensive goods produced under problematic environmental and social conditions. All of this calls for policies that shape global supply chains in accordance with globally agreed social and environmental objectives. Policies along these lines will have to balance the legitimate interests of different countries and they may easily fail to achieve their objectives unless they are firmly grounded in a thorough understanding of the respective structures in supply chains, including the power relations between the actors. Further, the economic, social and environmental effects of alternative policy options need to be well understood. Science can make an important contribution here, especially if it maintains a constant dialogue with politics and society. This is why the international “Research Network Sustainable Global Supply Chains” was initiated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). It currently comprises about 100 internationally leading scientists from all over the world and is jointly coordinated by our four institutes. Its tasks are: To conduct and stimulate research that contributes to making supply chains more sustainable; and to collect and synthesize the best international research on this topic and make it accessible to policy makers and other societal actors. In addition to its own research, the network organises academic conferences and discussions with policymakers, organises a blog and produces podcasts. With this report – the first in a new annual series – we present new research highlights, provide a forum to debate controversial supply chain topics and identify policy-relevant research gaps for the network‘s future work. The report is, at the same time, an invitation to participate in the discussions on how investment, production and trade will be reorganized in a global economy that has to respond to geopolitical challenges.

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Climate Change, Water Security, and National Security in Jordan, Palestine, and Israel

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is considered a climate hotspot due to its natural water scarcity, low levels of socio-ecological resilience, social tensions and political conflicts, and ongoing immigration crisis. Over the course of the century, Jordan, Palestine, and Israel are projected to experience an average temperature rise over the Mediterranean of ~1.4C to ~4C; a general decrease in precipitation of 25 percent regionally and up to 40 percent locally; a shift in rain seasons from winter and spring to autumn; a higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as droughts, flash floods, and forest fires; as well as a growing rate of desertification. Despite the effects of climate change being already observable in the region, the three countries have yet to fully recognize the connection between the negative impact of climate change on their neighbors’ national security, and the implications for their own national security. Based on this lack of understanding, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine have done little to develop a regional, integrated roadmap for climate-related national security. This report concludes that too little attention is being paid to the implications of climate-related change for national and regional security. The term threat or risk multiplier is often used to describe the catalytic effect of climate-related change on states and societies. In this sense, it is not the climatic changes themselves that are said to cause insecurity. Rather, it is the adaptive capacity of a state that ultimately determines the extent to which climate-related change impacts the socio-economic development and political stability of a country and, therefore, of a region. The adaptive capacity of a state is weakened if the country exhibits unstable political institutions with low accountability, political repression and/or corruption, social tensions, a history of intra- or inter-state conflicts, as well as unsustainable livelihoods and damaged infrastructure, among others.

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publication
Good Water Neighbors? A Study of Environmental Peacebuilding in Israel and Palestine

Water scarcity, pollution, and unequal distribution add complexity to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In response, EcoPeace Middle East engages Israelis, Palestinians, and Jordanians in cross-border environmental cooperation while promoting dialogue and trust among members of all three societies. This study explores how EcoPeace fosters environmental peacebuilding between Israel and Palestine, looking specifically at what motivates Israelis and Palestinians to engage in cross-border cooperation, how their involvement in the organization affects their relationships, and the organization’s key challenges and strengths. The study relies on theories of water conflict and water cooperation, social cubism, and environmental and multi-track peacebuilding. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and critical auto-ethnography. The study found that by creating linkages between water and other sectors of society, the organization has been able to procure tangible results, and sustain limited dialogue and cooperation between Israelis and Palestinians, even in the context of physical, legal, political, and psychological barriers.

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Environmental Peacebuilding Across Borders and Sectors: A Concerted Approach to Multilateral Cooperation in the Middle East

Disputes over water constitute a major area of disagreement between Israel and Palestine. The uncoordinated and irresponsible environmental actions on both sides have created serious ecological and humanitarian hazards that require rapid, yet sustainable action. Those who argue that the water problem can be resolved only as part of a comprehensive peace deal between the Israelis and Palestinians fail to recognise both the urgency and the potential of cross-border water cooperation. The bottom line of this Flanking Cooperative Idea is that because water- and sanitation-related issues extend both horizontally across national borders and vertically across various sectors, environmental cooperation can be used to create positive linkages with and spill-overs into other policy fields with the potential to initiate new forms of collaboration in currently deadlocked areas, including the field of disarmament and non-proliferation.

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