German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP)
Bettina Rudloff is an agricultural engineer and holds a PhD in agricultural economics. She started her research work on trade, agriculture and development at the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA), Maastricht, the Netherlands. During that time, she led mid-term vocational training programmes of the EU Commission for developing countries‘ WTO negotiators, and consulted agricultural officials of Mediterranean partner countries and EU officials on trade, agriculture and fisheries. After a subsequent Assistant Professorship at the Institute for Food and Ressource Economis/University of Bonn, she became Senior Associate at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in 2008. Here she works on EU trade and investment rules at all levels of regulatory regimes, i.e. multi-, and bilateral agreements, supplementing initiatives such as voluntary partnership agreements and analysing the scope for tariff and regulatory rules to support sustainability. More recently, she has been exploring the impacts of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) along the whole value chain on developing countries and has analyzed coherent approaches to support food systems resilience. She addresses different agricultural value chains, most recently soy, palm oil, and cocoa.
Sustainable international value chains: The EU’s new due diligence approach as part of a policy mix
A new family of regulatory approaches affecting international value chains has been initiated recently, mainly by developed countries, the Due Diligence Laws (DDLs). These new approaches are an addition to already existing (and partially) older trade measures that have already been adapted in the past to better incorporate sustainability goals. However, adding the DDLs on top of already existing other measures begs the question how all these measures fit together, how they interact and which areas would benefit from (improved) coordination.
Social Cohesion as the Missing Link between Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding: Lessons from Cocoa Production in Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia
Social cohesion plays a key role in processes of peacebuilding and sustainable development. Fostering social cohesion might present a potential to enhance the connection of natural resource management and peacebuilding and better functioning of sustainable land use systems. This contribution explores the nexus between social cohesion, natural resource management, and peacebuilding. We do so by (1) reviewing literature on the three concepts and (2) studying four different key action areas in the context of sustainable cocoa production for their potential to enhance social cohesion, namely (a) agroforestry; (b) cooperatives; (c) certification schemes; and (d) trade policies. Research is based on experience from cocoa production in two post-conflict countries, Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia. Our findings show that by fostering environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, these key action areas have a clear potential to foster social cohesion among cocoa producers and thus provide a valuable contribution to post-conflict peacebuilding in both countries. However, the actual effects strongly depend on a multitude of local factors which need to be carefully taken into consideration. Further, the focus in implementation of some of these approaches tends to be on increasing agricultural productivity and not directly on fostering cocoa farmers’ wellbeing and societal relations, and hence a shift toward social objectives is needed in order to strengthen these approaches as a part of overall peacebuilding strategies.
Sustainable Supply Chains in the Agricultural Sector: Adding Value Instead of Just Exporting Raw Materials
The corona pandemic has placed supply chains back on the agenda. The economic repercussions spotlight the complexity of today’s global division of labour. Current German and European initiatives are seeking to tighten the responsibility of final business consumers for human rights and sustainability in their supply chains. The objective is to enforce sustainable production in sovereign third countries. In the case of agriculture these explicitly supply chain–based approaches need to be backed up by improvements in the European Union’s trade, investment and agricultural policies. Influencing agricultural supply chains in such a way as to overcome their specific sustainability and human rights problems will require all approaches to be combined. Currently, conventional approaches treat supply chains in isolation, and only address imports flowing into the EU. As such, they consider developing countries exclusively in their traditional role as suppliers of raw agricultural commodities and ignore options for increasing local value added and fostering development.
A Stable Countryside for a Stable Country? The Effects of a DCFTA with the EU on Tunisian Agriculture
Agriculture is central to the stability of Tunisia’s economy and society. The new Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) under negotiation with the EU offers opportunities for the agricultural sector, but also presents risks for the country as a whole. Within Tunisia there is strong emotional resistance to the DCFTA. Its intensity is comparable to the strength of feeling against the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in Germany a few years ago. In addition to criticisms of specific topics in the talks, a string of issues fuel this categorical rejection: wariness of European dominance; negative experiences with transformations in the agricultural sector, especially in relation to land ownership; as well as the tradition – prevalent across North Africa – of securing food security through protectionist trade policy. Sustainability impact assessments demonstrate positive welfare effects on growth and standard of living – but many concerns about ecological and social repercussions appear justified. Such negative effects can be avoided through concrete solutions within the agreement, and even better through appropriate Tunisian policies. The EU can address the categorical rejection by almost all stakeholders in Tunisia through better communication during negotiations. As well as appealing for commitment and responsibility on the Tunisian side, it will be important to approach Tunisian sensitivities with awareness and respect. Above all, Tunisian researchers should be more involved in DCFTA sustainability impact assessments and participate in public debate on these studies.Regardless of the success or failure of the talks, Tunisian agriculture needs to be promoted and developed. The organic sector offers great export opportunities and attractive employment opportunities for young people.
European chicken drumsticks for West Africa – a threat to local markets?
Trade in agricultural products is of considerable importance to the economies of most African countries. Imports often play an important role in feeding a growing population. At the same time, they exert competitive pressure on internal production and therefore also put food security at risk. Here, it is the European Union that has above all been at the centre of criticism over many years because of its agricultural policy. Is this justified? With an account of poultry meat exports to West Africa, our authors show that there are no simple answers to this question.