Bernard Hoekman

European University Institute

Bernard is Professor and Director, Global Economics at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute in Florence, Italy. He is also a CEPR Research Fellow, where he co-directs the Trade Policy Research Network; a Senior Associate of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab countries, Turkey and Iran; and a member of the World Economic Forum Global Action Council on Logistics and Supply Chains. Prior positions held by Bernard include Director of the International Trade Department and Research Manager in the Development Research Group of the World Bank, economist in the GATT Secretariat, and visiting positions at SciencesPo, Paris. Bernard is a graduate of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, and he obtained his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan.

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Jan 1, 2020
Bernard Hoekman

Global Value Chains: Inter-Industry Linkages, Trade Costs and Policies

Jan 1, 2020
Christopher Findlay, Bernard Hoekman

Value chain approaches to reducing policy spillovers on international business

Government policy can add to the costs of doing international business. It can distort the construction of and raise the costs of operation of global value chains (GVCs), to the detriment of the participating economies. Given rising technological and market-driven headwinds confronting GVCs, countri...


Jan 1, 2014
Kishore Gawande, Bernard Hoekman, Yue Cui

Global Supply Chains and Trade Policy Responses to the 2008 Crisis

The collapse in trade and the contraction of output that occurred during 2008–9 was comparable to, and in many countries more severe than, the Great Depression of the 1930s. However, it did not give rise to the rampant protectionism that followed the Great Crash. The idea that the rise in the frag...


Jan 1, 2014
Bernard Hoekman

Supply Chains, Mega-Regionals and Multilateralism: A Road Map for the WTO

At the 9th Ministerial Conference of the WTO in Bali it was agreed to develop a work program to conclude the long-running Doha round. This report argues that any work program should recognize that goods and services are increasingly produced in international supply chains. Many of the policies impac...


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