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Antonio Andreoni

SOAS University of London

Antonio Andreoni is Professor of Development Economics at the Department of Economics, SOAS University of London. He is also Honorary Professor at the Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, University College London, and Visiting Professor at the South African Research Chair in Industrial Development, University of Johannesburg. He has published extensively on production dynamics, technological change, and social conditions of innovation; structural transformation, GVCs, industrial ecosystems; financialisation and corporate governance; political economy of industrial policy; energy transition and sustainable industrial restructuring; competition policy, digitalisation, platform economy. His publications include articles in the Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Development and Change, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Technovation, Health Policy and Planning, Energy Policy, European Journal of Development Research and Journal of Industrial and Business Economics. His recent books include: Structural Transformation in South Africa (OUP, 2021) and From Financialisation to Innovation (CUP, 2022). Antonio is a co-Editor of the European Journal of Development Research. He has been an advisor for several international organisations including UNIDO, UNCTAD, ILO, UNDP, UN ECA, World Bank and OECD, as well as national governments in industrial policy making. Antonio holds a PhD from Cambridge University and is Life Member of Clare Hall.
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publication
Geopolitics Of Critical Minerals In Renewable Energy Supply Chains

Addressing the climate change crisis calls for an accelerated deployment of renewableenergy technologies – solar panels and wind turbines – as well as a shift towards electric vehicles (EV) (Bainton et al., 2021). The manufacturing of these technologies, however, relies on the availability and supply of different types of critical minerals. Lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and graphite are crucial to battery performance, longevity and energy density. Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential for permanent magnets, which are vital for wind turbines and EV motors. Electricity networks need a huge amount of copper and aluminium, with copper being a cornerstone of all electricity-related technologies (IEA, 2021). The production of lithium and cobalt may increase by 500% by 2050 to meet clean energy demand alone. The bottom line is that clean-energy technologies and related infrastructures require more minerals (World Bank, 2017 and 2020).

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publication
Structural Transformation in South Africa The Challenges of Inclusive Industrial Development in a Middle-Income Country

Taking South Africa as an important case study of the challenges of structural transformation, Structural Transformation in South Africa offers a new micro-meso level framework and evidence linking country-specific and global dynamics of change, with a focus on the current challenges and opportunities faced by middle-income countries. Detailed analyses of industry groupings and interests in South Africa reveal the complex set of interlocking country-specific factors which have hampered structural transformation over several decades, but also the emerging productive areas and opportunities for structural change. The structural transformation trajectory of South Africa presents a unique country case, given its industrial structure, concentration and highly internationalized economy, as well as the objective of black economic empowerment. Structural Transformation in South Africa links these micro-meso dynamics to global forces driving economic, institutional and social change. This include digital industrialization, global value chain consolidation, financialization, environmental and other sustainability challenges, which are reshaping structural transformation dynamics across middle-income countries like South Africa. While these new drivers of change are disrupting existing industries and interests in some areas, in others they are reinforcing existing trends and configurations of power. The book analyses the ways in which both the domestic and global drivers of structural transformation shape-and, in some cases, are shaped by-a country's political settlement and its evolution. By focusing on the political economy of structural transformation, the book disentangles the specific dynamics underlying the South African experience of the middle-income country conundrum. In so doing, it brings to light the broader challenges faced by similar countries in achieving structural transformation via industrial policies. Full publication is available on: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/structural-transformation-in-south-africa-9780192894311?cc=gb&lang=en&

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Industrial Policy in the 21st Century

Industrial policy is back at the centre stage of policy debate, while the world is undergoing dramatic transformations. This article contributes to the debate by developing a new theory of industrial policy, incorporating some issues that have been neglected so far and taking into account the recent changes in economic reality. The authors explore how the incorporation of some of the neglected issues — commitments under uncertainty, learning in production, macroeconomic management (especially demand management), and conflict management — changes the theory. They then examine how the theory of industrial policy should be modified in light of recent changes in economic reality: the rise of the global value chain, financialization and new imperialism. This contribution aims at promoting a pragmatic approach to industrial policy and pointing to new areas for policy intervention in a changing world.

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publication
The political economy of industrial policy: Structural interdependencies, policy alignment and conflict management

Industrial policy is back in the mainstream debates. The paper provides a long-term analytical perspective of the industrial policy debate, and it critically assesses the current mainstream phase of the debate in light of three fundamental theoretical insights that developed along several decades of industrial policy theory and practice. These are related to the (i) structural interdependencies, tensions and dualism arising in the industrialisation process; (ii) variety and types of institutions for industrialisation and the importance of policy alignment; (iii) conflict management role of the government, alongside his entrepreneurial function, and the importance of government organisational capabilities. Building on this theoretical analysis, the last section of the paper provides a framework for the strategic coordination of packages of interactive industrial policy measures. The Policy Package Matrix is introduced as an operationalisation of the framework and a tool for effective industrial policy making.

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